Md. Mizanur Rahnan :: The journey of civilization started from the day when wild man was transformed into social. That is, civilization brings people into discipline. The scope of society and various social ups and downs have given birth the new social values.The types and forms of values has changedin the course of social evolution. Society started from the time when human beings started living together in harmony with each other and fellow feeling made human beings united. It began with a bonding at the core of which was the assurance of one’s own security. When people began to unite, there was a commitment within themselves that they would face dangers together and ensure their own safety from wildlife. Society has now reached to today’s state. Bauman described the current state of society as ‘liquid modernity’. The stability of human relationships that existed in earlier societies has now taken the form of liquidity. Every relationship in the society now has turned into liquid relations, and emotions and mental attachment are disappear in the relationships. I do not think there is any shortage of examples at present. The son is leaving the mother on the street, the father is killing the son, husbands are killing wives, the brother is killing the brother or one friend is killing another friend! We are becoming suicidal day by day only through our activities.Social issues like devianceand crime rate are increasing at an alarming rate in society.
Deviance is a kind of abnormal and unwanted behaviors. Behaviors that conflict with the customs, values, and traditions of our society and are undesirable on the basis of social norms and values but not prohibited by law are called social deviance. In other words, deviance is an act against the solidarity, integration and discipline of society. Out-of-discipline and unlawful activities are called crime. The crime is recognized by laws and there are provisions for punishment for breaking the laws.
Social deviation occurs when there is an absence of cultural values and norms, and social relations, or if they are conflicting and weak. On the other hand, the emergence of a subculture and its conflict with mainstream culture brings about deviance in that particular society. Again, it would not be an exaggeration to say that environment and faulty socialization are largely responsible too. R. K. Marton thinks that deviance occurs only when there is a gap between the goals and the means to achieve the goals. At the root of creating disequilibrium in modern society is the inability to achieve goals in socially acceptable manners.The explanation of the deviant behavior of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim is considered important. According to the perspectives of Durkheim, deviance and crime occur in weakening social institutions. Human moral decay occurs when social norms fail to control one’s behavior. When moral decay takes on a parental shape, the breakdown of social institutions begins. Social institutions are mechanisms or patterns of social order focused on meeting social needs, such as government, economy, education, family, religion etc. The current social crises are made by human himself. The solution is in our own hands.In today’s society, individualism is predominant. The person is always busy with himself, he has no headache about what is happening around him. Current form capitalism encourages its followersto be unprincipled making self-centered and individualistic. People in capitalism are very much calculative in making profit but they are absolutely indifferent when it comes to consumption process in the name of individual freedom. Yet again, the values of capitalism are, potentially, criminal values and they encourage crimes of the fraud, and of less fortunate others who are persuaded this is an appropriate way to behave.
The absence of the influences of social institutions gives birth the social issues andit is now extremely prevalent everywhere. To what extent are social institutions influencing our personal or collective life? Where do we practice values in our lives, how much is religion affecting our lives? How importantly family and educationis playing role in our daily life? Are the agents of socialization being able to socialize us in real sense? Strong influence of social institutions requires to be established to prevent social issues and the responsibilities lies on all of us living in society.
Writer: Adjunct Faculty and Research Fellow, Institute of Development Studies and Sustainability, United International University.